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Separation of Compounds Using Column Chromatography
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Procedure:

 

  1. Preparation of the Column:

     

    • Place the column in a ring stand in a vertical position.
    • A plug of glass wool is pushed down to the bottom of the column.
    • Prepare slurry of silica gel with a suitable solvent & pour gently into the column.
    • Open the stop cock & allow some solvent to drain out. The layer of solvent should always cover the adsorbent; otherwise cracks will develop in the column.
  2.  

  3. Adding the Sample to the Column:

     

    • Dissolve the sample mixture in a minimum amount of solvent (petroleum ether).
    • Remove the solvent by placing the mixture in a rotary evaporator at a low temperature.
    • Place the dry powder on a piece of weighing paper and transfer it to the top of the column through the funnel.
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  5. Developing the Chromatogram:

     

    • Attach a dropping funnel filled with petroleum ether on to the column.
    • Add petroleum ether continuously from the funnel to the top of the column.
    • Open the stopcock carefully.
    • The components of the mixture run down the column forming two separate yellow bands.
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  7. Recovering the Constituents:

     

    • Continue running the petroleum ether till both the bands are eluted out separately.
    • Collect the constituents in two different R.B flasks. (Ortho nitrophenol is obtained first, followed by para nitro phenol.).
    • Evaporate the solvent by placing the mixture in a rotary evaporator.

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