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Voltage Clamp Protocol




  1. Cole, K.S. (1949) Dynamic electrical characteristics of the squid axon membrane. Arch. Sci. Phtsiol.3:253-25.
  2. Hodgkin, A.L. & Huxley, A.F. (1952a). Currents carried by the sodium and potassium ion through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. J. Physiol. 116(4): 449-472.
  3. Hodgkin, A.L. & Huxley, A.F. (1952c). The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. J. Physiol. 116(4): 497-506.
  4. Hodgkin, A.L. & Huxley, A.F. (1952e). Propagation of electrical signals along giant nerve fibers. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 140(899): 177-183.  
  5. Hodgkin, AL, Katz, B. The effect of sodium ions on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid. J Physiol (Lond) 108,37–77,1949.
  6. Marmont, G. (1949) Studies on the axon Membrane; a new method. J Cell Physiol. 1949 Dec;34(3):351-82.




  1. Bertil Hille .Ionic channels of excitable membrane,2nd Ed. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, Massachusetts,1992.
  2. Kandel,ER.,J.H.Schwartz and T.M.Jessell.Principles of neural science,4thEd. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc , New York, 2000.




  1. Voltage-Gated Sodium and Potassium Channels  - http://openwetware.org/wiki/BIO254:AP
  2. Ion Channels  - http://www.biologyreference.com/Ho-La/Ion-Channels.html
  3. Voltage clamp - http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Voltage_clamp

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