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Cryoscopy
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Materials Required:

  1. Water bath
  2. Test tube
  3. Thermometer
  4. Stirrer

 

Reagents:

 

 Solvent:

  1. Water
  2. Benzene
  3. Carbon disulfide
  4. Carbon Tetrachloride
  5. Chloroform

  Solute:

  1. Sodium chloride
  2. Calcium chloride
  3. Aluminium chloride
  4. Urea
  5. Glucose

 

Procedure:

 

  1. Take the test tube from the water bath
  2. Select a solvent component from the list.
  3. Choose a known amount of solvent.
  4. Place the thermometer into the test tube
  5. Place the test tube in the water bath
  6. Click the power on button
  7. Record the temperature of the solvent
  8. Click the power off button
  9. Take the test tube from the water bath
  10. Choose the solute from the list
  11. Choose its weight
  12. Place the test tube in the water bath
  13. Click power on button
  14. Record the temperature of the solution
  15. Use the freezing point of pure solvents to determine the depression in freezing point.

 

Observations and Calculations:

 

Solvent used =..........................

Mass of the solvent =...............g

Freezing point of the pure solvent =................oC

Solute used =.............................

Mass of the solute =..................g

Freezing point of the solution =........................oC

Therefore, Depression in freezing point of the solution =.......................oC

The van 't Hoff factor of the solute =.........................

The molar mass of the solute =..............................

 

Results:

 

  1. Depression in freezing point of the solution =.......................oC
  2. The van 't Hoff factor of the solute =.........................
  3. The molar mass of the solute =..............................

 

Points to Remember while Performing the Experiment in a Real Laboratory:

 

  1. Always wear lab coat and gloves when you are in the lab. When you enter the lab, switch on the exhaust fan and make sure that all the chemicals and reagents required for the experiment are available. If it is not available, prepare the reagents using the components for reagent preparation.
  2. Properly adjust the flame of the Bunsen burner. The proper flame is a small blue cone; it is not a large plume, nor is it orange.
  3. Make sure to clean all your working apparatus with chromic acid and distilled water and ensure that all the apparatus are free from water droplets while performing the experiment.
  4. Make sure to calibrate the electronic weigh balance before taking the measurements.
  5. Clean all glass wares with soap and distilled water. Once the experiment completed recap the reagent bottles. Switch off the light, exhaust fan and Gas cylinder before leaving the lab.
  6. Discard the used gloves in a waste bin.

 

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